While these studies provide convincing evidence for the influence and control exerted on others by the behavior of a model, a more crucial test of imitative learning involves the generalization of imitative response patterns new settings in which the model is absent. In the experiment reported in this paper children were exposed to aggressive and nonaggressive adult models and were then tested amount of imitative learning in a new situation on in the absence of the model.
Saul McLeodupdated During the s, Albert Bandura conducted a series of experiments on observational learning, collectively known as the Bobo doll experiments. Two of the experiments are described below: Aim Bandura conducted a study to investigate if social behaviors i.
Sample Bandura, Ross, and Ross tested 36 boys and 36 girls from the Stanford University Nursery School aged between 3 to 6 years old. The researchers pre-tested the children for how aggressive they were by observing the children in the nursery and judged their aggressive behavior on four 5-point rating scales.
It was then possible to match the children in each group so that they had similar levels of aggression in their everyday behavior.
The experiment is, therefore, an example of a matched pairs design. To test the inter-rater reliability of the observers, 51 of the children were rated by two observers independently and their ratings compared.
Method A lab experiment was used, in which the independent variable the type of model was manipulated in three conditions: Aggressive model is shown to 24 children Non-aggressive model is shown to 24 children No model shown control condition - 24 children Stage 1: Modeling In the experimental conditions children were individually shown into a room containing toys and played with some potato prints and pictures in a corner for 10 minutes while either: The adults attacked the Bobo doll in a distinctive manner - they used a hammer in some cases, and in others threw the doll in the air and shouted "Pow, Boom.
The final 24 children 12 boys and 12 girls were used as a control group and not exposed to any model at all.
Animation created by Wes Venables Stage 2: Aggression Arousal All the children including the control group were subjected to 'mild aggression arousal.
As soon as the child started to play with the toys, the experimenter told the child that these were the experimenter's very best toys and she had decided to reserve them for the other children.
Animation created by Wes Venables Stage 3: The non-aggressive toys included a tea set, crayons, three bears and plastic farm animals. The aggressive toys included a mallet and peg board, dart guns, and a 3 foot Bobo doll.
Observations were made at 5-second intervals, therefore, giving response units for each child. However, the exception to this general pattern was the observation of how often they punched Bobo, and in this case the effects of gender were reversed. The evidence for girls imitating same-sex models is not strong.
There was little difference in the verbal aggression between boys and girls. That is, children learn social behavior such as aggression through the process of observation learning - through watching the behavior of another person.
This study has important implications for the effects of media violence on children. Evaluation There are three main advantages of the experimental method. Experiments are the only means by which cause and effect can be established. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the model did have an effect on the child's subsequent behavior because all variables other than the independent variable are controlled.
It allows for precise control of variables. Many variables were controlled, such as the gender of the model, the time the children observed the model, the behavior of the model and so on. Experiments can be replicated.
Standardized procedures and instructions were used, allowing for replicability. In fact, the study has been replicated with slight changes, such as using video and similar results were found Bandura, Limitations of the procedure include: Many psychologists are very critical of laboratory studies of imitation - in particular because they tend to have low ecological validity.
The situation involves the child and an adult model, which is a very limited social situation and there is no interaction between the child and the model at any point; certainly the child has no chance to influence the model in any way. Also, the model and the child are strangers.
This, of course, is quite unlike 'normal' modeling, which often takes place within the family. Cumberbatch found that children who had not played with a Bobo Doll before were five times as likely to imitate the aggressive behavior than those who were familiar with it; he claims that the novelty value of the doll makes it more likely that children will imitate the behavior.
A further criticism of the study is that the demonstrations are measured almost immediately. With such snap shot studies, we cannot discover if such a single exposure can have long-term effects.
It is possible to argue that the experiment was unethical.Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models Background Albert Bandura is, perhaps, best known for his role in developing social learning theory. This study by Bandura, Ross and Ross () focuses on the transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models.
What is a model? A model is a person or persons which perform behaviours in the contexts of psychological studies. Children exposed to non-aggressive models will reproduce less aggressive acts.
Children will imitate the behaviour of a same-sex model more than a model of the opposite sex. Boys will be more predisposed towards imitating aggression than girls. TRANSMISSION OF AGGRESSION THROUGH IMITATION OF AGGRESSIVE MODELS Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross, and Sheila A.
Ross  ()First published in Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 63, Children exposed to non-aggressive models will reproduce less aggressive acts. Children will imitate the behaviour of a same-sex model more than a model of the opposite sex. Boys will be more predisposed towards imitating aggression than girls.
Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models Background Albert Bandura is, perhaps, best known for his role in developing social learning theory.