Several, purely social changes associated with puberty further complicate adolescent lives and add to their propensity for moodiness.
Received Nov 27; Accepted May 2. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background Appearance-related social pressure plays an important role in the development of a negative body image and self-esteem as well as severe mental disorders during adolescence e. Identifying who is particularly affected by social pressure can improve targeted prevention and intervention, but findings have either been lacking or controversial.
Thus the aim of this study is to provide a detailed picture of gender, weight, and age-related variations in the perception of appearance-related social pressure by peers and parents. Methods German students between grades 7 and 9 mean age: FASDwhich considers different sources peers, parents as well as various kinds of social pressure e.
Results Girls were more affected by peer pressure, while gender differences in parental pressure seemed negligible. Main effects of grade-level suggested a particular increase in indirect peer pressure e.
Boys and girls with higher BMI were particularly affected by peer teasing and exclusion as well as by parental encouragement to control weight and shape. Conclusion The results suggest that preventive efforts targeting body concerns and disordered eating should bring up the topic of appearance pressure in a school-based context and should strengthen those adolescents who are particularly at risk - in our study, girls and adolescents with higher weight status.
Early adolescence and school transition appear to be crucial periods for these efforts. Moreover, the comprehensive assessment of appearance-related social pressure appears to be a fruitful way to further explore social risk-factors in the development of a negative body image.
Peer pressure, Parental pressure, Adolescence, Gender, Age, BMI Factors influencing the development of a negative body image during adolescence have received increasing attention due to the fact that body dissatisfaction is highly prevalent among adolescents in western society and is also one of the main predictors of low self-esteem, depression, and not least of all disordered eating [ 1 - 3 ].
Sociocultural influences are particularly relevant in this process. Many studies have emphasized the crucial role of perceived appearance-related social pressure in the development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating.
Thus, social agents — especially peers and parents, who are closest to the adolescent — both consciously and unconsciously convey and enhance appearance-related norms through direct and indirect interactions [ 56 ].
Peers and parents promote the construction of beauty ideals, norms, and standards and highlight the importance of appearance.
Numerous studies have investigated different aspects of peer [e. However, to our knowledge no theoretical framework has yet integrated the main influences from both peers and parents discussed in the literature. In order to develop a comprehensive measure of appearance-related pressure from peers and parents see [ 17 ]we reviewed the literature and found influences from friends[ 12 ] and schoolmates as well as teasing or exclusion to be the most established peer influences.
With regard to parental influences, aspects such as parental norms and modeling behavior regarding appearance [e.May 17, · Appearance-related social pressure plays an important role in the development of a negative body image and self-esteem as well as severe mental disorders during adolescence (e.g.
eating disorders, depression).
May 17, · Because studies on social pressure have mostly derived appearance pressure among females is not just a result of inappropriate measurement but in fact a result of the greater societal emphasis on beauty and Higher weight is associated with higher levels of proximate individual-related appearance pressure (e.g.
teasing. the social environment and that levels of self-esteem are likely to be patterned by one´s position in the social structure (Marmot,Ryff,Bumpass,Shipley,& Marks, ). The data revealed that, in the absence of individuating information beyond that implicit in the advice request, internalized gender expectations along the lines of agency and communality are the sources from which advice givers draw to guide their counsel.
Erikson’s Theory: Identity vs. Identity Confusion Identity • Defining who you are, what you value and social competence, physical/athletic competence, and physical appearance.
and physical appearance. • Temporary drops at school transitions – Individual differences become more stable – Self-esteem linked to value of activities. Beauty is the apparent new indicator of social worth. This contrasts with cultures where age is revered and elders are deferred to with respect.
However, the desire for beauty is .