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Design, components, and operation[ edit ] Operation and layout[ edit ] Escalators typically rise at an angle of about 30 degrees from the ground.
Most modern escalators have single-piece aluminum or stainless steel steps that move on a system of tracks in a continuous loop. This helps riders steady themselves, especially when stepping onto the moving stairs.
Occasionally a handrail moves at a slightly different speed from the steps, causing it to "creep" slowly forward or backward relative to the steps; it is only slippage and normal wear that causes such losses of synchronicity, and is not by design.
In some setups, the direction is controlled by whoever arrives first.
Physical factors such as the distance to be spanned determine the length and pitch of the escalator, while factors such as the infrastructure's ability to provide support and power must be considered.
Temporal traffic patterns must be anticipated. Some escalators need only to move people from one floor to another, but others may have specific requirements, such as funneling visitors towards exits or exhibits.
The visibility and accessibility of the escalator to traffic is relevant. Designers need to account for the projected traffic volumes. For example, a single-width escalator traveling at about 0.
The carrying capacity of an escalator system is typically matched to the expected peak traffic demand. For example, escalators at transit stations must be designed to cater for the peak traffic flow discharged from a train, without excessive bunching at the escalator entrance.
In this regard, escalators help manage the flow of people. For example, at many airports an unpaired escalator delivers passengers to an exit, with no means for anyone entering at the exit to access the concourse.
Escalators are often built next to or around staircases that allow alternative travel between the same two floors. Elevators are necessary for disability access to floors serviced by escalators. Landing platforms[ edit ] Landing platforms are the two platforms at the two ends that house the curved sections of the tracks, as well as the gears and motors that drive the stairs.
The top platform usually contains the motor assembly and the main drive gear, while the bottom holds the step return idler sprockets. Each platform also has a floor and a comb plate. The floor plate provides a place for the passengers to stand before they step onto the moving stairs, flush with the rest of the floor and usually hinged to allow easy maintenance access, while the comb plate lies between the stationary floor plate and the moving step, so named for the cleats on its edge which mesh with the matching cleats on each step and resemble a comb.
The interlocking cleats help to minimize the gap between the stairs and landing, preventing objects or persons from becoming caught in it. Truss[ edit ] The truss is the hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings, composed of two side sections joined together with cross braces across the bottom and just below the top.
The ends of the truss are attached to the top and bottom landing platforms via steel or concrete supports. It carries all the straight track sections connecting the upper and lower sections.
Balustrade[ edit ] Made of either metal, sandwich panelor glass, the balustrade supports the handrails of the escalator. It also provides additional protection for the handrail and passengers. Some escalators have direction arrows on the ends of the balustrade. Moving walkways often use balustrades in the same way.
Tracks[ edit ] The track system is built into the truss to guide the step chain, which continuously pulls the steps from the bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop.
One track guides the front wheels of the steps called the step-wheel track and another guides the back wheels of the steps called the trailer-wheel track.
The relative positions of these tracks cause the steps to form a staircase as they move out from under the comb plate. Along the straight section of the truss the tracks are at their maximum distance apart. This configuration forces the back of one step to be at a degree angle relative to the step behind it.Tickets are pieces of papers, which are designed to allow the holder access some places such as occasions, functions and travel.
The free word templates online will allow you to fashion a Blank Ticket Templates by providing all the details you need for your event such as dates, time and dress code.
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Pensions, property and more. Sample 1: Workflow Diagram — Business. This example shows a workflow diagram that clearly illustrates stages a business consists of and relations between all parts of business.