Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. I will also be examining counter arguments from other sources on his theories.
Instead, they have become obsessed by audience interpretations of "texts". On discovering that people have different views about the world, they mistakenly advance the thesis that texts have no fixed meanings and reject concepts such as media power and influence.
In this essay, an extract from their recent book Market Killing. What the free market does and what social scientists can do about it London: Longman,Greg Philo and David Miller criticise this work on audiences and cultural consumption which they think is poor in methods and conceptualisation.
People can apparently live in what amounts to a sealed space of thought and language creating their own versions of what is taken to be real on the basis of pre-existing beliefs, values, codes or competencies — rather as football supporters are alleged to "see" only the fouls committed by the other side.
There are two key theoretical assumptions in this approach which we want to criticise here. First, the assumption that texts can mean whatever audiences interpret them to mean — and that they only have meaning with each new interpretation.
Second, the assumption that the producer of a text can describe the world in an indefinite number of ways and that there is no recourse to an agreed reality to evaluate the description. Neither is it possible to explain the genesis of the description in real outside interests. These assumptions appear in different areas of media and cultural studies including studies on pleasure, identity and in the theory of the active audience.
This last theoretical approach illustrates many of the problems in academic work which has lost touch with the real world.
For an audience to be "active" could mean simply that people are not cultural dopes who believe everything they are told in the media. We would certainly accept this and our own work suggests clearly that different audiences can understand a media message but can have different responses to it.
Some people believe and accept the message, others reject it using knowledge from their own experience or can use processes of logic or other rationales to criticise what is being said. But some theorists go beyond this to suggest that audiences create their own meanings from the text — i.
The suggestion is that a text will mean completely different things to different audiences. This could perhaps happen if the audience literally doesn't speak the language of the message, or if there are radical cultural differences between those who produce the message and those who receive it; as for example when European colonists in Africa or Asia appropriated artefacts which were of great cultural or religious significance and thought they would make nice wall decorations.
But our own work on responses to media output suggests that varied audience groups have a very clear understanding of what is the intended message and can reproduce it very accurately.
We asked audience groups to produce their own news accounts and scripts of films and soap operas from memory. They were given a small number of photographs from the particular story to act as a stimulus.
In the study of beliefs about the miners strike we gave small groups of people photographs from news coverage with which they wrote there own "news story" and they were then questioned about what they actually believed. In the event, the different groups were very clear on what the intended message of news reporting was — i.
They did not interpret the intended meaning of the news differently; i. There were of course differences between the groups — not over the meaning of the message but on whether or not they believed it. Some of these differences were related to pre-existing beliefs, but even here not everyone remained fixed in their views.
Some who were sympathetic to the strike were weakened in their support by what they had seen in news reports. There were clear examples of media influence on belief and opinion. We also found that some people criticised the truth of media accounts using processes of logic and reasoning.
This was not confined to people who supported the strike. For example one very conservative person commented that she "would have shot" the striking miners. Nonetheless she rejected the news message and believed that the strike was mostly peaceful.
She argued that this was necessarily so because of the numbers involved, as she out it: The use of logic and evidence about what really happened concerned other group members. A group of three solicitors who were very conservative in their views debated the real content of the photographs they were using to write a news exercise.
They picked up a photograph of pickets which actually showed people standing around peacefully and sitting on the ground. One then suggested as a text to go with it: The point here is that these participants used a photograph as agreed evidence to give an account which differed from the initial view of "picket violence".
In other groups some people used different forms of direct experience to criticise the news message on violence.MARTIN: So this is about - this is essentially a power struggle over who is going to succeed Mugabe.
I mean, he's 93 years old. John Fiske: Shopping For Pleasure Analytical Essay by Top Papers John Fiske: Shopping For Pleasure A look at John Fiske's perspective on shopping malls .
Arthur Quiller-Couch, ed. The Oxford Book of English Verse: – John Sheffield, Duke of Buckinghamshire. – On One who died discovering her Kindness.
An essay on shopping malls and the power struggles going on within them: A critical analysis of Fiske's 'Shopping for Pleasure', from 'Reading The Popular'. Critically examine the contribution of Jean Piaget to our understanding of child development. An essay on shopping malls and the power struggles going on within them.
In this essay, I have given a critical analysis of Fiske 's "Shopping for Pleasure", from "Reading The Popular". In this analysis, I will be examining the main points in this chapter and discussing Fiske 's explanation for including each one. Shun Yin Lam (),"The Effects of Store Environment on Shopping Behaviors: a Critical Review", in NA - Advances in Consumer Research Volume 28, eds.
Mary C. Gilly and Joan Meyers-Levy, Valdosta, GA: Association for Consumer Research, Pages: