The classical conditioning is a theory by Ivan Pavlov describing the learning achievements caused by the association between stimuli of the environment and automatic reactions in the body. Following the studies of Pavlov, John Watson came to an idea that all complex behaviors were strings of conditioned behavior and learning through classical conditioning would cause many phobias. The Pavlov learning has five variables: We can write a custom psychology essay on Classical Conditioning for you!
Steve Baldwin The classical conditioning explanation of phobias, and the treatment of such conditions.
Baldwin This essay will outline and critically evaluate the classical conditioning explanation of how phobias are acquired. It will then discuss the influence the theory of classical conditioning has had on the treatments for phobic conditions.
Psychologys classical theorist essay are usually defined as a fearful response to stimuli which is out of proportion to the actual threat or danger that the stimulus presents.
The existence of phobias and the mechanisms that give rise to them have been of great interest to the field of psychology from its beginning. One interpretation of how an individual will develop a phobic response is the classical conditioning theory.
The classical conditioning theory states that through a process of learned association, the conditioned stimulus will be paired with the unconditioned stimulus, and a conditioned behavioural response will then occur when the paired unconditioned stimuli is presented alone.
One of the first studies to test the possibility of applying classical conditioning to the development of phobias was Watson and Rayner. By showing a white rat, the conditioned stimulus, and pairing it with a loud sound, striking an iron bar, the unconditioned stimulus, and repeating this process several times, he is declared to be conditioned when he shows distressed behaviours such as, crying, turning away and crawling away, when the white rat alone was put in front of him.
The paper concludes with the suggestion that many phobias have been gained in some similar way. The fact that phobias tend to be so persistent, is not readily explained by classical conditioning particularly when the pairing of conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus may occur very infrequently and over a long period of time.
Furthermore phobias tend to cluster around certain stimuli, spiders for example, but the theory we would lead one to expect a fairly random distribution, given the range of chance encounters that many occur.
These inconsistencies suggest that the classical conditioning model may not be as explanatory as it may have initially appeared. Perhaps the great strength of the classical conditioning theory of phobia acquisition is its simplicity and compatibility with the scientific method.
No other theory is more straight forward, but as suggested above it seems to be inadequate to explain why a conditioned response persists as a phobia without refreshing and why phobias tend to be much more prevalent for some objects but not others. One of its major theoretic rivals, certainly in early years of development, is Freudian psychodynamics.
The Freudian theory relates all phobic responses back to psychosexual development. A phobia, the theory states is the result of a defence mechanism to help cope with repression. An individual will displace repressed emotions onto a similar more acceptable object.
The case study of Little Hans, Freud, S, is an example of this. While Freudian analysis is still popular in places, its lack of compatibility with the scientific method makes it a theory that psychologists may be wary of trusting.
The evolutionary explanation of biological preparedness and non-associative fear acquisition, are particularly useful interpretations when the classical conditioning theory has difficulty understanding the cause of the phobia, or why some phobias are much more common than others.
Such as when a phobia only concerns a limited number of events and objects, when phobias are acquired through normal development without any apparent pairing of the two stimuli.
It may have some explanatory power concerning the difficulty of classically conditioned fear to an event or object that has no evolutionary fear significance, for example, curtains, compared to one that does, a spider. Still it remains the case that some people do acquire phobias of the most innocuous objects such as buttons and dolls.
So evolutionary theory can only be suitable for certain types of phobia. Evolutionary theory also suffers from the same problems of verifiability as the Freudian theory does, which is likely to lower confidence in its predictive and explanatory power.
An example of the situational phobia is the interpretation of a bodily sensation such as vertigo, as threatening and attributing this ambiguous sensation to the situation. Field and Nightingaleconsider classical conditioning to form a useful basis for understanding phobias, but point out modern conditioning theory has developed to include interactions with cognition and is the basis for many other panic and anxiety disorders.
Nevertheless conditioning theory has shaped many of the treatments that are given to individuals suffering from phobias. Exposure treatments were some of the first to be developed, and they are still used today. This is because the recorded success rate of these treatments is very good.ESSAY What Is Learned During Classical Conditioning?
Classical conditioning is a form of associated learning.
Here is the first accurate translation of Richard Cantillon's masterpiece on economics. This treatise is widely credited with being the first to describe the market process as one driven by entrepreneurship. Classical conditioning theory involves learning a new behavior via the process of association. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal. Psychology Prospect Theory PSY Prospect Theory Review This paper is written in order to compare and contrast two articles that were chosen from the social psychology field. I chose my topic as Prospect Theory.
The question is, what exactly is being associated. There are two main theories, the traditional Pavlovian S-S theory and the S-R theory. The S-S theory states that an association is formed between two stimuli, the conditioned stimulus. Nov 25, · Art theory essay.
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|Classical Conditioning Examples - Psychestudy||Pavlov is best known for his intricate workings with the drooling dog experiment that lead to his further research in conditioning. This experiment, which began inhad an influence on the development of physiologically oriented behaviorist theories of psychology in the early years of the nineteenth century.|
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o Biological theories in criminology. o Psychological theories in criminology. o Conclusion. 1. Introduction. Classical conditioning predicts that by repeatedly pairing a motivationally significant stimulus (such as food) with a particular signal (such as a ringing bell) will result in a conditioned.