Japanese feudalism vs european feudalism essays Japanese feudalism vs european feudalism essays 5 stars based on 34 reviews kinokuniya
Japan Essay When most people think of feudalism, medieval Europe from about the ninth to 15th centuries is most likely to come to mind. The term feudalism Japanese feudalism essay of fairly recent Japanese feudalism essay, coined in the 17th century by lawyers and antiquarians who used it to describe rules of land tenure, legal customs, and political institutions that had survived from medieval times.
For Marxist historians the key elements of feudalism are the relationships between the feudal landholders and their serfs, whom they compel by force, custom, or law to provide labor, money, or tribute. Other non-Marxist historians define feudalism as a system of military and political organizations in which armed warriors or knights served leaders, who in turn provided them with land grants in return for personal service.
The roots of Japanese feudalism can be traced back to the seventh century in Japan and extend through the medieval period of Japanese history.
Many of the laws and institutions described as feudal protected privileges of the landholding aristocracy and allowed them to use their power over the peasant class.
The primary virtue in the Japanese feudal system was loyalty, because the entire social-political system depended on personal relationships.
Contrary to the lord-vassal relationships of European feudalism that were based on mutual and contractual obligation, the Japanese emphasized morality. This is not to say that family ties were unimportant in medieval Japanese society, as inheritance determined power and prestige as well as property ownership.
Japanese feudalism also differed from European feudalism in that there was no cult of chivalry that put women on a romantic pedestal as fragile and inferior beings. Japanese warriors expected their women to be as strong as they were and accept self-sacrifice as part of their obligation to their lord.
Seppuku, ritual suicide by disembowelment, became the dominant alternative to dishonor or capture. Warrior class-consciousness—a sense of the warrior class as a separate entity—did not materialize until the 13th century when the Kamakura Shogunate rule by a military generalissimo took power.
The new institution created a new category of shogunal retainer that held special privileges and responsibilities and narrowed the scope of social classes the samurai class comprised. Its founder, Minamoto Yoritoto, consciously helped foster this new warrior ethos by holding hunts and archery competitions that helped to solidify the warrior identity.
As the samurai served as the enforcers of feudal rule, their role in Japanese history was extremely important and the lord-vassal relationship was pivotal to feudal order.
Beginning in the early seventh century the Yamato court introduced several Chinese political and governmental practices in order to increase the power of the ruler. Within one century the Yamato court transformed itself into a Chinese-style monarchy.
The main players in this governmental shift came not only from members of the ruling family, but also from powerful group leaders associated with the Yamato court. China provided both political ideals and a set of political institutions that extended further than the unsophisticated attempts at centralization begun in the sixth century.
Integral to the innovations of the seventh and eighth centuries was a new concept of ruler. Reformers borrowed the Chinese notion of an absolute monarch whose authority went beyond kinship ties. By the end of the seventh century the ruler was called tenno, or emperor, and the title brought with it increased authority.
The first capital was constructed in the southern end of the Yamato Basin but was eventually moved to Nara in In the capital was moved to Heian, later known as Kyoto, where it remained until the 19th century.
However the monarchial state did not survive much beyond the eighth century. Part of the demise of the monarchy can be attributed to the emphasis placed on heredity rather than meritocracy.
The members of the Yamato clan were unwilling to share power, as it was synonymous with wealth in the form of land grants, household servants, and agricultural laborers. The old clan leadership was thus transformed into a new ruling class that was dependent on imperial supremacy.
Notwithstanding the departure of the monarchial state from the goals originally intended by the reformers of the seventh century, the emperor, the court, and the aristocracy at the capital survived for several more centuries largely because of the rise of private estates called shoen.
Private estates became the primary source of aristocratic wealth and allowed court aristocrats to exert more power and control.
By the end of the 12th century, some historians estimate, more than half the cultivated land was owned privately. By the late 10th and early 11th centuries warrior chieftains threatened political order and began to emerge with more regularity. These challenges contributed to the breakup of the court into many aristocratic factions that competed for power and drew certain warrior families into capital politics.
Most influential were the Seiwa branch of the Minamoto family and the Ise branch of the Taira family. By the late 11th century the Seiwa influence in the east and the Taira influence in the west had both established important connections in the capital.
After a series of power struggles, Taira Kiyomori emerged with increased influence in the court and political power. Minamoto Yorimoto and his followers succeeded in driving the Taira out of the capital and in their armies were defeated in the west.
The victory meant that Yorimoto became the most powerful chieftain in Japan. Eventually however the shogun became a warrior monarch whose power came from the imperial government and actually extended beyond it.
Yorimoto remained in power until his death in His death started a crisis of sorts because Yorimoto, perhaps because he distrusted his closest kin, did not make effective arrangements for a successor. Hence power fell into the hands of the Hojo clan, where it remained until the end of the Bakufu in The Kamakura Bakufu marked a big step toward a purely feudal political order.Japan and Europe during the middle ages had both been affected by agriculture, social classes, and lack of power from the king/emperor - Japan and European Feudalism introduction.
However, there had been major differences such as the role of women, and the different beliefs for a warrior between Chivalry (knights) and the Bushido code (samurais).
Feudalism in European and Japanese Society Feudalism was used in both Japan and Europe and as such, ad similarities amongst in Uses including the basis the system was based on, the hierarchy involved in such a system, and the establishments lords built as their residences. Nov 25, · European and japanese feudalism essays.
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European feudalism was based on contract and Japanese feudalism was based on personal relationship with the lord and vassal. This helps prove that the differences between European and Japanese feudalism made limited government more likely to develop in the West because a contract limits what the.
Japanese Feudalism Social class and military dictatorship were the foundations of the feudal structure of Japan. Each rank of the feudal hierarchy was allotted clearly defined limits above or below which it was impermissible to pass.4/4(1).
Read this History Other Essay and over 88, other research documents. Japanese Feudalism. Japanese Feudalism Social class and military dictatorship were the foundations of the feudal structure of Japan. Each rank of the /5(1).