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Communities throughout the FSM are culturally and linguistically heterogeneous. A shared national identity has been important for economic and political negotiations with outsiders, but sociocultural diversity within the FSM is more often the hallmark of islander identity.
The Federated States of Micronesia consists of islands with a total land area of square miles square kilometers scattered across more than one million square miles 2. The islands are grouped into four geopolitical states: The capital of the FSM is Palikir, which is located in a mountainous region of the main island of Pohnpei.
Each state features both mountainous volcanic islands and low-lying coral atolls, with the exception of Kosrae, which has one mountainous island. Coral atolls consist of several small islets within a fringing reef, arranged around a central lagoon.
Volcanic islands have a greater diversity of ecological zones, including an interior of dense rain forest and soaring mountains, a coastal plain of ridges and winding valleys, and thick mangrove swamps crowding the shoreline. Virtually all of the islands in the FSM suffered severe depopulation following the introduction of diseases by the Europeans in the mids.
Since the late s, population figures have risen steadily. The population, estimated at , is up 19 percent from The annual growth rate of the nation's population is at 2 percent, down 1 percent from the growth experienced between and This drop in the population's growth rate can be attributed, in part, to emigration and the free movement of citizens between the FSM and the United States and its territories allowed by the Compact of Free Association.
Despite international migration trends, the rapidly growing population of the FSM is expected to double in the next 36 years. English, the official language, is taught in schools and is widely known throughout the region.
It is, however, a second language for most Micronesians. Virtually every inhabited island in the FSM is associated with a distinct language or dialect from the Austronesian Malayo-Polynesian language family. With the exception of a few Polynesian outliers, the languages spoken among the islanders of Chuuk, Pohnpei, Kosrae, and the coral atolls of Yap State are classified as Nuclear Micronesian.
Yapese mainlanders speak a Western Micronesian language. The linguistic diversity among citizens of the FSM is a testament to the importance of local communities.
On the FSM's national flag, four white stars on a sea of blue represents the four unified states in a vast expanse of the western Pacific. The flag symbolically acknowledges that although each state is composed of a diversity of cultures over many miles of ocean, they are joined, not separated, Federated States of Micronesia by the sea.
The sea and maritime themes associated with fishing and voyaging are employed as symbols of a pan-Micronesian identity. Island food and the land on which it is grown also figure prominently in discourse on national identity.
Even so, gatherings of ethnically distinct Micronesians during national events feature performances and associated symbolism that highlight the rich cultural diversity of the nation.
Dance forms are highly regionalized, often expressing the unique cultural histories of the performers. Images employed in paintings, decorations, and publications often emphasize the cultural heritage of individual states. History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.
Prior to this time the islands were governed successively by Spain, Germany, and Japan. The establishment of the Congress of Micronesia in was the first sign of the Micronesian movement towards autonomy.
Dissatisfaction with the TTPI administration's inadequate development strategies and their own lack of control over economic planning compelled members of the congress to press for self-government.
Micronesia's strategic location at the threshold of the Asian mainland gave the islanders leverage in their negotiations with the United States, which began in A draft constitution for the FSM was crafted by delegates from each of the TTPI districts during the constitutional convention of The hope was to forge a national identity and unite all districts under a single, constitutional federation.
The relatively greater U. In a referendum held inthe voters from the remaining four central districts Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae approved the constitution and became the FSM. The new government formally commenced operations inyet remained under the authority of the United States until when the Compact of Free Association took effect.
The creation of a national identity has not been easy considering the differences between island sociocultural practices, languages, and resources.Delinquency and Opportunity • Blocked opportunity aspirations cause poor self‑concepts and feelings of frustration and • These frustrations lead to delinquency, especially within a gang context.
• A key concept here is differential opportunity structure, which is an uneven distribution of legal and illegal means of achieving economic success, especially as they are unequally available. Abstract. Less than a third of married couple households in the United States are composed of families with one breadwinner.
This is a stark contrast to a mere 40 years ago when men were the primary breadwinner for the majority of households. Juvenile Delinquency and Family Structure Obviously something is going on in today’s society if more and more children are committing delinquent crimes.
Sometimes a researcher has to get to what he or she thinks is the root of the problem to figure out what spawns a certain issue.
How Parents Influence Deviant Behavior among Adolescents: An Analysis of their Family Life, their how do parents influence deviant behavior in their which in turn will lower the delinquency rates.
THE FAMILY A parent is a model towards their children.
Research on modeling has shown that when. Preface. The main purpose of the sixth edition of Juvenile Delinquency: Concepts and Control is to provide the practitioner or the student interested in working with juveniles an overview of the juvenile delinquency phenomenon and the process involved in its causation, prevention, control, and treatment.
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