Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. The reformation was a period of time when rebels came about with the intension of changing the way people looked at the Church. Martin Luther and John Calvin were the leaders of the reformation and the Catholic religion was heavily influenced by them. Luther and Calvin had some similar attitudes between political authority and social order such as believing in Christian doctrine and reforming churches.
The Lutheran Reformation Reformation within Christianity was hardly a new idea in the sixteenth century. The idea of reform for the individual Christian is part of the essence of the religion.
The sixteenth century reformation, however, marked significant social, political and cultural changes in Europe. During the late Middle Ages, signs of disorder and corruption in the church were rampant. The humanists of Italy and of the Northern Renaissance had spoken out against corruption in the church.
Critics of the church concentrated on three problems areas: Absolute celibacy had been a requirement of churchmen since the fourth century. Many priest, especially those in rural areas, violated the rule with abandon.
They kept concubines and married when they pleased. Clergymen who violated this rule also frequently engaged in gambling, drunkenness, and wore fancy clothes churchmen at that level were to be distinguished by their simple dress, normally black or dark brown.
Since most parish priests were themselves poor, their conduct was not much different from the people they served. Criticism of their lifestyle and lack of morality originated not with the rural poor, but with the educated humanists.
Although the church had established standards of education for parish priests, bishops rarely enforced them. As a rule, parish priests were less educated than the educated laity. Many priests could not read or write, and frequently mumbled Latin words which they did not themselves understand.
The humanists, concerned with learning, found this horrifying and condemned it frequently. Parish Priests often mumbled through the phrase, without any concept of its meaning—that the body of Christ was sacrificed for sin—and understood only that it had some mystical, perhaps magical qualities.
Many high churchmen, archbishops, cardinals, etc. Such a practice was against church policy, but that policy could be waived for a fee. In practice, church offices were often sold, a practice the church had long condemned as Simony.
Those appointed seldom attended to the official duties of the position to which they were appointed; rather they appointed a poor parish priest to minister to the people, and paid him a pittance, while they raked in large sums of money from the church tax.
The lucrative income from the church tax was a substantial motivating factor for those seeking high church office. Wolsey held the position for fifteen years before he ever set foot in his diocese.
He first entered his cathedral feet first—at his own funeral. Although considered a sin, at the time of the Renaissance, it was practiced in the church with abandon. Many high church officials were Italian, but were appointed to benefices in England, Spain, or Germany, and paid from local church revenues.
This practice, in addition to accusations of pluralism and absenteeism, aroused nationalist sentiment as well.Reformation Study Guide.
Compare and contrast the attitudes of Martin Luther and John Calvin toward political authority and social order. Similarities: -In general 1) Both Calvin and Luther were Protestant reformers who wanted to curb the.
To Luther and Calvin, the church was the local body of believers, as well as, the universal church or invisible church. Furthermore, for Calvin the marks of a church actually formed a church; this surpassed Luther’s use of these marks.
Luther's basic religious theories were the similarities between Luther and Calvin's attitudes toward social order.
There are, however, many differences between Calvin and Luther's views on social order and especially on political authority. Luther redefined the nature of man and man’s relationship to God.
In so doing, he also changed the way in which man thought of political order. Here is how it happened. 3, Links May 1, Add URL, report dead links, suggestions, comments, contact Steve Stewart: [email protected] Martin Luther and John Calvin The words from Ps.
"Do not bring your servant into judgment, for no one living is righteous before you," reveal the core of their faith.
Although Luther and Calvin were well known, they never met or spoke a word to each other: Neither .