Jerry de Gier Are fathers necessary? Based on the statistics, the right type of father is in high demand.
The role of parents in early childhood learning Susan H. From a socio-cultural viewpoint, cognitively responsive behaviours e. Increased volume in this brain region is associated with more optimal development of a number of psychosocial factors e.
Problem Despite the central role for responsive parenting in different research frameworks, much of what we know about this parenting style comes from descriptive studies.
This means that we can only infer the importance of responsive parenting. To assume a causal influence of responsive parenting on child outcomes would require data from experimental studies with random assignment.
Fortunately, there is growing evidence from interventions targeting the facilitation of responsive parent practices that show positive results and some evidence that when responsive behaviours are increased children showed at least short-term increases in cognitive, social, and emotional skills.
Can interventions targeting responsive parenting work for different types of high risk parents? Do increases in the various aspects of responsiveness explain the positive changes in different aspects of cognitive and social development? Is parental responsiveness equally effective, or does its effectiveness vary for children with varying characteristics e.
After the infancy phase, mothers receiving the intervention showed strong increases in all responsiveness behaviours and their infants showed higher levels and faster growth rates in a range of skills. For example, independent problem-solving during toy play showed greater increases for infants whose mothers received the intervention compared to infants whose mothers did not receive the intervention.
The effects of the intervention also generalized to positively influence parent and child behaviours during a shared book reading activity, even though this activity was not a specific focus of the intervention. Finally, interventions targeting responsive parenting practices also show similar positive effects for parents of varying risk factors e.
Now research is needed to further delineate this specificity between particular types of responsive support and particular developmental goals. Expanding our understanding of how responsive parenting looks and works across different family and child characteristics would add to the development of a more highly specified model of responsive parenting.
Finally, determination of what supports need to be in place to assist parents with their attempts to be responsive could enhance the effectiveness of responsive parent interventions.
There are many new research avenues that need to be explored and questions addressed in recent studies that require further examination. Policy and practice decision-makers need to pay particular attention to parents who are most at risk: Synthesis of relevant research should guide new investments in parent programs and the development of research initiatives concerning responsive parenting.
Developmental science is frequently not well integrated into policy or program application. When new investments are made in publicly funded services for children and families, there is often a greater emphasis on accountability.
This should serve to encourage a greater consideration of research-based evidence that can better assure program effectiveness. Maternal responsiveness and cognitive development in children. A psychological study of the Strange Situation. Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values:The Significance of a Father's Influence a parenting style that is significantly different from that of a mother and that difference is important in healthy child development.
82% of studies on father involvement and child well-being published since found "significant associations between positive father involvement and offspring. Only a small number of parent-child studies investigated the father's role, and the few studies that were done at that time focused on the father's involvement as reported by the mother.
Whether the father is the perpetrator or not, the abuse of a child can be a direct affront to how a father views himself as a man and a father.
How does a father contribute to the development of a child? Both parents are very important. Generally, mothers do more of the explicit nurturing, while fathers tend to be more involved in play, particularly physical play and “rough and tumble” play.
However, fathers do much more hands-on. Only a small number of parent-child studies investigated the father's role, and the few studies that were done at that time focused on the father's involvement as reported by the mother.
Using family systems theory and an actor–partner interdependence model, we examine the influence of the division of family work (including fathers’ participation in child rearing) on father–child relationship quality, satisfaction with the family work division, and marital quality.