Chapter Two Thomas G. Sticht In the last decade of the twentieth century nearly 40 million people enrolled in the programs of the U. What is even more remarkable than the sheer number of enrollees is the fact that these adults were for the most part members of the very population identified in numerous studies and reports as being unlikely to seek such education Quigley,pp.
Sojourners or Permanent Residents? The literature on the mass migration in the early part of this century emphasizes the role of sojourners who moved to the United States for a temporary period to earn income, accumulate assets, and then returned to their home countries Baines,; Wyman, These migrant workers were allowed to remain in the United States for up to 18 months.
The program was extended after the war and was not ended until Feliciano, Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. The magnitude of the actual return flows are difficult to measure with precision, yet all of the evidence we have been able to assemble suggests that the return flows were quite large.
For example, we think it is interesting to note that, while the age composition of the immigrants had a strong impact on the age distribution of the subsequent foreign-born population, the proportion of males among the foreign-born population recorded at the various censuses from —, although greater than 50 percent, was not heavily imbalanced.
These numbers are compared with the proportion of immigrants arriving in each year who were male dashed line. Clearly many more male then female immigrants returned to their homelands with just a brief stay in the United States.
Another clue regarding the relative importance of sojourners in the earlier immigrant flows is contained in the time series displayed in Figure There, 12 The immigration data are the same as displayed in Figure except that calendar year flows are estimated by averaging the fiscal year data.
That is, calendar year is an average of fiscal year which ends June 30, and fiscal year This cyclical pattern to the male share is consistent with the hypothesis that male immigrants were primarily sojourners whose migration decisions were quite sensitive to economic conditions in the United States.
Certainly it is plausible that a depressed economy would discourage sojourners. But in fact little is known about the phenomenon in the era of mass migration. Before the official statistics count only arrivals. They do not distinguish between permanent settlers and temporary guest workers, nor is there any comprehensive count of returning immigrants during this period.
Kuznets and Rubin We have also reproduced the official figures on arrivals in Figure This is the same series as the one displayed in Figure Figure displays what we call the "immigrant return rate. Figure shows that the return rate rose from less than 10 percent in and to over 70 percent just before World War I.
This increasing propensity of the United States to attract sojourners makes sense given the declining cost of transatlantic passage due to the continual technological improvement of the steamship following the introduction of scheduled service on the North Atlantic in the s Baines, Immigration and the American Business Cycle If we return to Figurewe find that it reveals another striking difference between the data for the recent and the distant past.
In the recent past, immigration flows have increased in almost every year, showing little sensitivity to year-to-year changes in macroeconomic conditions.
This is because immigration is today closely regulated and because more wish to migrate than the number of visa slots available.
Most successful immigrants have been waiting for admission for several years. Today, year-to-year changes in the number of immigrants reflect policy changes, particularly regarding the admission of refugees and asylees, not changes in demand for admission.
In the early period, by contrast, immigration was extremely sensitive to economic conditions in the United States. Between andfor example, when the unemployment rate almost doubled from 4.
Even more dramatic is the almost 40 percent reduction in the number of immigrants in a single year, from 1. The consensus is that the pull forces of American opportunities dominated the push forces of European poverty, land scarcity, and military conscription Easterlin, Unauthorized Aliens in the United States: Policy Discussion Congressional Research Service 2 population reached a peak in , totaling about million and million, respectively.
7 Between and , the unauthorized population decreased, according to both DHS and. On September 21 the National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine published The Integration of Immigrants into American Society, a report that looks at the overall integration of immigrants into the United States.
(This new report is a revision of the original report produced with Corporation support.).
Mexico and Central America accounted for most unauthorized immigrants in the United States as of , with MPI estimating about million people in .
The s and 60s saw an increase in incoming immigrants to the United States despite the Civil War. American Policy provided incentive for newcomers in an ever expanding country. The Homestead Act of , for example, provided land, for free or at minimal cost, in the West to settlers who agree to develop and live on it for at least five years.
Immigration continues to be the subject of intense national debate. The more than one million immigrants arriving each year have a very significant effect on many areas of American life.
The latest data collected by the Census Bureau show that the last decade was the highest in terms of immigrant arrivals in American history. Read the essential details about the history of the Communist Party of the United States (CPUSA). The formation of the Communist Party with its emphasis on electoral politics, alienated members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and other militants who believed the road to revolution lay through direct or mass action.