JPG On 19 Septemberwhen the Governor, Lord Glasgow, signed a new Electoral Act into law, New Zealand became the first self-governing country in the world to grant all women the right to vote in parliamentary elections. This success came at the end of an enormous struggle by suffragists in New Zealand, led by Kate Sheppard. It was the largest petition ever gathered in Australasia. When the Bill was passed, suffragists celebrated throughout the country, and congratulations poured in from suffrage campaigners in Britain, Australia, the United States and elsewhere:
New Zealand was originally settled by Polynesians from Eastern Polynesia. Genetic and archaeological evidence suggests that humans emigrated from Taiwan to Melanesia and then travelled east through to the Society Islands ; after a pause of 70 to years, a new wave of exploration led to the discovery and settlement of New Zealand.
This was not possible in the south of the South Island, but wild plants such as fernroot were often available and cabbage trees were harvested and cultivated for food.
Warfare also increased in importance, reflecting increased competition for land and other resources. As elsewhere in the Pacific, cannibalism was part of warfare. Leadership was based on a system of chieftainship, which was often but not always hereditary, although chiefs male or female needed to demonstrate leadership abilities to avoid being superseded by more dynamic individuals.
New Zealand has no native land mammals apart from some rare bats so birds, fish and sea mammals were important sources of protein.
They also cultivated the cabbage treea plant endemic to New Zealand, and exploited wild foods such as fern root, which provided a starchy paste. Early contact periods[ edit ] Early European exploration[ edit ] An early map of Australasia during the Golden Age of Dutch exploration and discovery c.
Based on a chart by Joan Blaeuc. Map of the New Zealand coastline as Cook charted it on his first visit in — The track of the Endeavour is also shown. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands' west coasts. Tasman called them Staten Landt, after the States General of the Netherlandsand that name appeared on his first maps of the country.
Cook returned to New Zealand on both of his subsequent voyages. Various claims have been made that New Zealand was reached by other non-Polynesian voyagers before Tasman, but these are not widely accepted. Early European settlement[ edit ] Further information: Christianity was introduced to New Zealand in by Samuel Marsdenwho travelled to the Bay of Islands where he founded a mission station on behalf of the Church of England's Church Missionary Society.
Kerikerifounded inand Bluff founded inboth claim to be the oldest European settlements in New Zealand. In some inland areas life went on more or less unchanged, although a European metal tool such as a fish-hook or hand axe might be acquired through trade with other tribes.
Tribes with muskets would attack tribes without them, killing or enslaving many. From to the Musket Wars raged until a new balance of power was achieved after most tribes had acquired muskets. However, these boundaries had no real impact as the New South Wales administration had little interest in New Zealand.
It made it easier for a court to punish "murders or manslaughters committed in places not within His Majesty's dominions ",  and the Governor of New South Wales was given increased legal authority over New Zealand. This was acknowledged by King William IV.
Busby was provided with neither legal authority nor military support and was thus ineffective in controlling the European population. Treaty of Waitangi[ edit ] Main article: This and the increased commercial interests of merchants in Sydney and London spurred the British to take stronger action.
This was the first clear expression of British intent to annex New Zealand. Copies of the Treaty were subsequently taken around the country to be signed by other chiefs.
What it gave the British in return depends on the language-version of the Treaty that is referred to. Dispute over the true meaning and the intent of either party remains an issue.
Britain was motivated by the desire to forestall other European powers France established a very small settlement at Akaroa in the South Island later into facilitate settlement by British subjects and, possibly, to end the lawlessness of European predominantly British and American whalers, sealers and traders.
Officials and missionaries had their own positions and reputations to protect. On 1 July New Zealand became a colony in its own right. The Church of England sponsored the Canterbury Association colony with assisted passages from Great Britain in the early s.
Somesettlers came from Britain, of whomstayed permanently. Most were young people andbabies were born. The passage ofwas paid by the colonial government. After immigration reduced, and growth was due chiefly to the excess of births over deaths.
The new Governor, George Greysuspended the plans. His plans for systematic British colonisation focused on a free labour system, in contrast to the slavery in the United States and the convict labour in Australia.
Inspired by evangelical Christianity and abolitionismWakefield's essays tocondemned both slavery and indentured and convict labour as immoral, unjust, and inefficient. Instead, he proposed a government sponsored system in which the price of farm land was set at a high enough level to prevent urban workers from easily purchasing it and thus leaving the labour market.For more on New Zealand history visit benjaminpohle.com or benjaminpohle.com The huge roll of names on the suffrage petition is now preserved at the National Library's He Tohu exhibition, alongside the Treaty of Waitangi and the Declaration of Independence of the United Tribes of New Zealand.
Feb 01, · In her ground-breaking History of New Zealand Women, Barbara Brookes provides just such a history. This is more than an account of women in New Zealand, from those who arrived on the first waka to the Grammy and Man Booker Prize-winning young women of the current benjaminpohle.com: The Legends of Maui are deeply rooted in New Zealand's history and culture.
Māori were the first to arrive in New Zealand, journeying in canoes from Hawaiki about 1, years ago. A Dutchman, Abel Tasman, was the first European to sight the country but it was the British who made New Zealand part of their empire.
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Suffragists celebrated throughout the country, and congratulations poured in from suffrage campaigners in Britain, Australia, the United States and elsewhere: one wrote that New Zealand’s achievement gave ‘new hope and life to all women struggling for emancipation’.
New Zealand first in women’s vote With the signing of the Electoral Bill by Governor Lord Glasgow, New Zealand becomes the first country in the world to grant national voting rights to women.